Indeed, including the four residual correlations improved model fit, Δχ2(4) = 100.795, p < 0.001. Validity checks included (i) the length of time required to complete the survey, (ii) answering 8 out of 12 preselected questions in a non-random way, and completing over half the survey (approximately 70%). At the same time, this questionnaire provides unique predictive utility for understanding depressive symptoms, beyond that of other measures. Participants comprised 300 undergraduates (n = 216 females, 84 males), with a mean age of 19.23 (SD = 1.71 years). Rev. U.S.A. 106, 912–917. Ther. Not surprisingly, most studies that have assessed stressor effects on cognitive control and flexibility have done so through neuropsychological or behavioral measures (Liston et al., 2009; Compton et al., 2013; Shields et al., 2016; Goldfarb et al., 2017). Moreover, although the present findings are correlational, these results raise the possibility that lower levels of cognitive control and flexibility might be associated with a tendency to interpret stressful situations in a negative perspective. Rev. Saliva samples were frozen at -80°C until assayed for cortisol levels. Coping flexibility and psychological adjustment to stressful life changes: a meta-analytic review. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2013.09.012, Vriezekolk, J. E., van Lankveld, W. G., Eijsbouts, A. M., van Helmond, T., Geenen, R., and van den Ende, C. H. (2012). ESEM was used to confirm the structure of the CCFQ. Ther. 56, 129–140. doi: 10.1023/A:1023910315561, Trivedi, M. H., and Greer, T. L. (2014). doi: 10.1016/j.newideapsych.2011.11.001. Accordingly, we propose that cognitive control and flexibility can, in fact, be expressed multiple ways. doi: 10.1016/j.bandc.2009.03.005, Ochsner, K. N., and Gross, J. J. The CFI has r … Beck, A. T., Ward, C. H., Mendelson, M., Mock, J., and Erbaugh, J. The fundamental factor in the expression of these abilities is highly dependent on context, including the characteristics and demands of the situation. This study was restricted to females because of their elevated propensity to depression relative to that seen in males. Brain Topogr. Précis of “The Brain and Emotion”. Partial correlations between the CCFQ and depressive symptoms after controlling for validation measures of cognitive control and cognitive (in)flexibility. Multiple mediation analyses were conducted using the PROCESS v3.0 add-on to SPSS provided by Hayes (2017). For each item, respondents indicated the extent to which they had demonstrated each of the behaviors as a way of dealing with stressors in recent weeks on a scale of 0 (Never) to 4 (Frequently). If you choose to participate in this study, you will be asked to complete a mindfulness scale, a cognitive flexibility questionnaire, and to complete a Postformal Thought scale with dilemma. 3.2.3. Sympathetic arousal, but not disturbed executive functioning, mediates the impairment of cognitive flexibility under stress. The neurobiology of emotion–cognition interactions: fundamental questions and strategies for future research. An inventory for measuring. Cognitive control, and the processes underlying this ability (executive functions) have also been implicated in self- and emotional-regulation, as well as mental health outcomes (Gotlib and Joormann, 2010; Hofmann et al., 2012). A second PCA was conducted on the remaining 18 items, in which the number of factors extracted was restricted to two. Dynamic systems theory as a paradigm for the study of change in psychotherapy: an application to cognitive therapy for depression. doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2010.03.007, Colzato, L. S., Van Wouwe, N. C., Lavender, T. J., and Hommel, B. Brain Sei. doi: 10.1002/jnr.23904, Morton, J. Prior to these analyses, an Exploratory Structural Equation Model (ESEM) was used to confirm the two-factor structure of the CCFQ and to test alternative models. More recently, Dennis and Vander Wal (2010) developed the Cognitive Flexibility Inventory (CFI) as an attempt to identify the aspects of cognitive flexibility The present study focused on the brooding (α = 0.81) and reflective pondering (α = 0.82) subscales. This said, it is important to acknowledge the high correlation between the Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire and the cognitive control over emotions component of the CCFQ, which suggests a high degree of overlap between the two measures and potential redundancy. Acad. Affect. For this PCA, we did not place a restriction on the number of factors produced. Clin Psychol. The higher the number, the greater psychological inflexibility (minimum score is 7; highest score is 49). Explanatory flexibility and explanatory style in treatment-seeking patients with Axis I psychopathology. For example, T1 represents the length of time between the collection of cortisol sample 1 (Cort1) and sample 2 (Cort2). Res. Table 1 (Student sample) presents the factor structure of the 18-item CCFQ as well as the eigenvalues and percentage of variance accounted for by each of the two factors. In sum, the two-factor model with the four residual correlations provided the best absolute fit and relative fit to the data. As shown in Table 3, the cognitive control over emotion component of the CCFQ remained strongly associated with cognitive reappraisal, perseverative thinking, and rumination, and the appraisal and coping flexibility component was still highly related to coping versatility. 31, 407–418. 4, 829–839. Specifically, the CCFQ explicitly and directly focused on the (negative) cognitive and emotional states elicited by a stressful situation, and the cognitive control processes required to regulate these responses. defined as the ability to switch one’s thinking (cognition) (or train of thought) as an adaptation to the demands of stimuli However, as the present study included only females, it is remains uncertain whether a similar pattern of results would be observed amongst males. The Cognitive Flexibility Inventory (Dennis and Vander Wal, 2010) appears to be the only questionnaire to measure aspects of cognitive flexibility relevant to stressful, or difficult, situations. Ergonomics 46, 482–501. These findings were unique to cognitive control over emotion, as the appraisal and coping flexibility component of the CCFQ did not moderate the effects of stressor condition on negative affect, ΔR2 = 0.02, F(1,42) = 1.72, p = 0.20. The Cognitive Flexibility Inventory (CFI) is a brief self-report measure of the type of cognitive flexibility (CF) necessary to successfully challenge and restructure maladaptive beliefs with more balanced and adaptive thinking; it is particularly popular for use with English speakers. doi: 10.1210/edrv.21.1.0389, Shields, G. S., Sazma, M. A., and Yonelinas, A. P. (2016). (2017). Annu. Sci. “Some ways in which positive affect influences decision making and problem solving,” in Handbook of Emotions, eds M. Lewis, J. M. Haviland-Jones, and L. F. Barrett (New York, NY: Guilford Press), 548–573. TABLE 5. Generally, cognitive control refers to the ability to focus on information that is currently relevant to a particular goal, while inhibiting information that is not relevant (Morton et al., 2011). Participants in the community sample comprised 302 (n = 253 females, 49 males) individuals living in Canada with a mean age of 32.83 (SD = 10.36 years). The Cognitive Flexibility Inventory (CFI; Dennis and Vander Wal, 2010) is a 20-item measure that assesses two aspects of cognitive flexibility: (1) the ability to perceive multiple alternative explanations for life occurrences and to generate multiple alternative solutions to difficult situations (alternatives), (2) and the tendency to perceive difficult situations as controllable (control). Neuropsychobiology 28, 76–81. In addition to the Cognitive Flexibility Inventory, we examined the relation between the CCFQ and several previously developed questionnaires that we believed captured features of cognitive control and flexibility (e.g., the Coping Flexibility Questionnaire; Vriezekolk et al., 2012) or reductions of these abilities (e.g., the Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire; Ehring et al., 2011). Almost half of the participants (n = 20) were taking an oral contraceptive. The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02219/full#supplementary-material, Abdollahi, A., Hosseinian, S., and Asmundson, G. J. Netw. Task switching. 29, 14–24. Furthermore, diminished cognitive control over emotion was linked to elevated and prolonged cortisol reactivity following an acute challenge, a neuroendocrine profile that has been associated with depressive illness (Juruena et al., 2017). Brain Imaging Behav. TABLE 6. Stressor appraisals are followed by the selection of coping methods to contend with the stressor directly and/or regulate emotional responses (Folkman, 2013). The hypothesized model provided a marginal fit to the data, χ2 (112) = 223.693, p < 0.0001, CFI = 0.958, and RMSEA = 0.052. The defining features of coping flexibility closely resemble the hallmark characteristic of cognitive flexibility, which is modifying cognitive or behavioral strategies in response to changing environmental demands. It was expected that the two questionnaires would display some convergence given that they both assess aspects of cognitive flexibility. Self-reported ethnicity included Caucasian (70.9%, n = 261), Asian (6.8%, n = 25), Black (6.0%, n = 22), Arab (5.2%, n = 19), South Asian (4.1%, n = 15), Hispanic (2.2%, n = 8), South East Asian (1.6%, n = 6), Aboriginal (0.3%, n = 1), and other (e.g., mixed ethnicity, 3.0%, n = 11). Once again, the direct effect of appraisal and coping flexibility on depressive symptoms remained significant after accounting for all 3 forms of coping, c’ = -0.124, SE = 0.043, p = 0.004. Given the limited capacity of working memory, the ability to focus on relevant information, ignore that which is non-essential, and to flexibly shift attention between multiple sources of information likely serves an adaptive function in coping with continuously evolving stressor experiences. The total CFS-J score was significantly and positively correlated with the cognitive flexibility inventory-Japanese version and its two subscales, along with the cognitive control scale and the positive subscale of the short Japanese version of the automatic thought questionnaire-revised (ATQ-R); further, it had a significantly negative correlation with the negative subscale of the ATQ-R … However, it might be the propensity for individuals who display difficulties of cognitive control and flexibility to specifically appraise stressor as threatening and uncontrollable that promotes sustained negative affect. Since stressful experiences often elicit negative emotions, emphasis was placed on how cognitive control and flexibility might be manifested in emotional regulation. Ther. On the other hand, a restricted definition of cognitive control or of cognitive flexibility might also prove counterproductive as it can limit the understanding of the role of these abilities in various adaptive and maladaptive behaviors, including the relevance of these constructs to psychopathology. Given the correlation between the components of the CCFQ, in the moderation analyses, when assessing the interactive effects of one component of the CCFQ (e.g., cognitive control over emotion), the second component (e.g., appraisal and coping flexibility) was treated as a covariate. 61, 154–162. Stressful events are inherently emotional experiences, and the provocation of negative affective states can influence cognition by biasing information processing toward mood-congruent material (Okon-Singer et al., 2015). Finally, the CCFQ was intended to measure trait-like abilities which can, however, be diminished following chronic or prolonged stressor exposure. Trends Cogn. Cognition 115, 458–465. Thus, the lack of test-retest reliability of the CCFQ is an important limitation of the present study. The Stressor Condition × Cognitive Control over Emotion interaction accounted for considerable variance in cortisol response, ΔR2 = 0.08, F(1,35) = 3.67, p = 0.06. (2011). Differential effects of cognitive inhibition and intelligence on creativity. (2010). The Executive Skills Questionnaire (ESQ) is a questionnaire designed to rate your executive skills. B., Levy, R., LeBastard, G., Lehéricy, S., et al. Although inspection of eigenvalues and scree plot for the 44 items suggested a 7-factor solution, only the first 2 factors explained greater than 10% of the total variance across items (Factor 1 = 38.11% and Factor 2 = 11.23%). Psych. 13, 152–163. A PCA with Promax rotation (since the factors were expected to be correlated) was conducted to explore the factor structure of the preliminary 44-item CCFQ and to select the final items for this measure. The cognitive flexibility inventory (CFI) was developed to be a brief self-report measure of the type of cognitive flexibility necessary for individuals to successfully challenge and replace maladaptive thoughts with more balanced and adaptive thinking. Psychol. The Coping Flexibility Questionnaire (COFLEX; Vriezekolk et al., 2012) is a 13-item questionnaire that assesses the capability of switching between assimilative and accommodative coping strategies (versatility) and the capability of generating and considering coping options, and appraising the suitability of a coping strategy in a given situation (reflective coping). The questionnaire measures 2 aspects of cognitive flexibility: – the ability to perceive and generate many alternative solutions – the Alternatives subscale, – a tendency to perceive difficult situations as controlla-ble – the Control subscale [22]. Cognitive control can be expressed through directing attention toward information that is relevant to situation (or goal), while inhibiting that which is not relevant. In the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, reappraisal largely refers to “changing what I’m thinking about” to either reduce negative emotions or enhance positive emotions (Gross and John, 2003). Although it can be argued that the Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire (PTQ; Ehring et al., 2011) and the Ruminative Response Scale (RRS; Treynor et al., 2003) measure products of reduced cognitive control, these questionnaires were not designed to be specific to stressor contexts. 2. Each statement was rated on a scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree). doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2014.04.005, Joormann, J., and Gotlib, I. H. (2010). Cogn. None of the participants reported a current physical illness/condition, nor were any of the participants taking anti-anxiety or antidepressant medications. (2007). Self-reported ethnic identities included Caucasian (72.8%, n = 220), Asian (11.9%, n = 36), South Asian (5.0%, n = 15), Black (2.0%, n = 6), Arab (2.0%, n = 6), Aboriginal (1.3%, n = 4), Hispanic (1.0%, n = 3), South East Asian, (1.0%, n = 3), and other (e.g., mixed ethnicity, 2.6%, n = 8). Cognitive control has been suggested to play an important role in the reappraisal process (Ochsner and Gross, 2005; Ochsner et al., 2012), and thus this might be a way through which this ability is expressed in stressful situations. Rheumatol. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.95.2.107, Gläscher, J., Adolphs, R., Damasio, H., Bechara, A., Rudrauf, D., Calamia, M., et al. The CCFQ was modeled after conventional behavioral measures of cognitive control and cognitive flexibility and assesses an individual’s perceived ability to exhibit control over their thoughts and behavior in a stressful situation. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2007.07.015, Snyder, H. R. (2013). doi: 10.1007/s00221-011-2943-1, Pruessner, J. C., Kirschbaum, C., Meinlschmid, G., and Hellhammer, D. H. (2003). TABLE 3. The appraisal and coping flexibility dimension of the CCFQ assessed an individual’s perceived ability to engage in a set of deliberate effortful behaviors that can facilitate a comprehensive and favorable appraisal of a stressful situation as well as the selection of a broad range of coping strategies. J. Gen. Psychol. The present study describes the development of the CCFQ as well as the factor structure and reliability of this measure in both a student and a community sample. Study 2 examined whether scores on the CCFQ were predictive of stressor appraisals and coping style, and whether these processes mediated the relation between cognitive control/flexibility (assessed through the CCFQ) and depressive symptoms. In the community sample, the item ‘I can remain in control of my thoughts and emotions’ loaded more strongly on the appraisal and coping flexibility component of the CCFQ. Cortisol Area Under the Curve increase (AUCi; Pruessner et al., 2003) was computed to examine changes, represented by a single value, in cortisol levels elicited by the stressor and control tasks. doi: 10.1037/h0059831, Gross, J. J., and John, O. P. (2003). doi: 10.1007/s11682-017-9788-6 [Epub ahead of print]. Affect. Reduced cognitive control and flexibility was associated with greater negative appraisals of stressful situations, which, in turn, was tied to more severe depressive symptoms (Study 2). doi: 10.1111/j.1745-6924.2008.00088.x, Nyhus, E., and Barceló, F. (2009). Understanding depressive rumination from a cognitive science perspective: the impaired disengagement hypothesis. Similarly, the relation between appraisal and coping flexibility and depressive symptoms was mediated by problem-focused and emotion-focused coping, but not avoidant coping (Table 8). 18, 176–186. Int. These studies have provided insights into how stressors influence fundamental cognitive processes (e.g., working memory, inhibition, set-shifting) and the neurobiological systems mediating these effects (Alexander et al., 2007; Liston et al., 2009; Plessow et al., 2012; Goldfarb et al., 2017). Upon completion of the study, participants received written debriefing and were compensated with course credit. The present research points to the CCFQ as a useful self-report tool to identify ways through which cognitive control and flexibility might be manifested in stressful situations, and how reductions in flexibility might be accompanied by elevated symptoms of depression. Principal components analyses (PCA) with Promax rotation were used to explore the factor structure of the CCFQ in a student and community sample. The Ruminative Response Scale (RRS; Treynor et al., 2003) is a widely used 22-item questionnaire assessing ruminative response styles to sad or depressed mood. To be sure, the CCFQ displayed a stronger relationship with cognitive reappraisal, brooding, and perseverative thinking, whereas the Cognitive Flexibility Inventory was more closely tied to reflective coping and expressive suppression. In addition, as mentioned earlier, excessive use of rumination, a coping or emotion regulation strategy characterized by repeated negative thinking concerning one’s dysphoric state (Nolen-Hoeksema et al., 2008), has been hypothesized to be rooted in disturbances of cognitive control (Joormann et al., 2007; Koster et al., 2011). Cogn. To this end, the CCFQ was developed was developed to assess an individual’s perceived levels of cognitive control and flexibility that were displayed through three stress-related processes, including attention, appraisals and reappraisals, and coping. Psychol. Iowa City, IA: The University of Iowa. Proc. The SAM (Peacock and Wong, 1990) was used to assess perceived stressfulness of the task, where higher scores represent greater perceived stressfulness (α = 0.81). This was accomplished by having all the negatively worded items load onto an additional third factor in the hypothesized model. The measures comprised the REI, the MADS, and the EoE. Thus, greater cognitive control over emotion, or the ability to disengage from negative cognitive and emotional states, might not only serve to regulate emotions effectively, but might also play a role in regulating the cortisol response associated with a stressful situation. B., Ezekiel, F., and Wilk, H. A. Cognitive Flexibility Scale: Other Names: CFS: Where can it be found? Stress 13, 435–443. It was also of interest to determine how individual differences in these abilities can serve as resilience or risk factors for depressive pathology. inventory, morningness-eveningness questionnaire and short form of cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire. J. Multiple mediation analyses were conducted to determine whether certain stressor appraisals and coping strategies mediated the relation between CCFQ scores and depressive symptoms. Biobehav. Addict. Impact of anxiety on prefrontal cortex encoding of cognitive flexibility. Pharmacol. 27, 247–259. The total effect of cognitive control over emotion on depressive symptoms was c = -0.572, SE = 0.043, p < 0.001. The intra- and inter-assay variability was <10%. Low cognitive control over emotion = 1 SD below the mean, high cognitive control over emotion = 1 SD above the mean. Behav. Integrating permissive, suppressive, stimulatory, and preparative actions. Extended processing of negative emotional information can result in prolonged and exacerbated negative mood that, over time, might contribute to depressive states (Joormann et al., 2007), and it appears that the inability to disengage from negative emotional information (i.e., cognitive inhibition) might be a defining characteristic of depressive pathology (Gotlib and Joormann, 2010). It’s developed by Vander Wal and Dennis in 2010 and consists of 20 items. As displayed in Table 8, problem-focused and emotion-focused coping uniquely mediated the relation between greater cognitive control over emotion and lower depressive symptoms, although the direct effect of cognitive control of emotion on depressive symptoms remained significant after accounting for all 3 forms of coping, c’ = -0.244, SE = 0.048, p < 0.001. Dev. In this regard, whereas the Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire focuses specifically on repetitive thought independent of content, the cognitive control over emotions component of the CCFQ assesses, more broadly, the ability to exhibit control over (primarily negative) thoughts and emotions. Mplus v.8.0 (Muthén and Muthén, 1998–2017) and robust maximum likelihood (MLR) estimation were used for all ESEM analyses to minimize the influence of non-normality on the estimation of the SEs in the model. Two formulas for computation of the area under the curve represent measures of total hormone concentration versus time-dependent change. 39, 736–743. This initial pool of items was presented to 25 graduate students in psychology and neuroscience who responded to each item and provided feedback as to which of the items were redundant or worded in a confusing or ambiguous manner. 53, 480–485. Affect. The present research examined how cognitive control and cognitive flexibility might be expressed in stressful situations and the processes through which reductions in these abilities might be linked to elevated depressive symptoms. Participants were also told they were being videotaped during the TSST. However, it was suggested that the control subscale might measure self-efficacy rather than cognitive flexibility (Johnco et al., 2014). Sci. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2012.06751.x, O’Donnell, L. A., Deldin, P. J., Pester, B., McInnis, M. G., Langenecker, S. A., and Ryan, K. A. Post-cognitive behavioral therapy, a significant decrease was observed in Beck Depression Inventory-II, Mental Defeat Scale, Cognitive Flexibility Scale, and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scores. Participants comprised (n = 47) female undergraduate students, ranging in age from 18 to 26 years (Mage = 19.00, SDage = 1.56). 22, 435–444. Neurosci. TABLE 2. In the present study, diminished appraisal and coping flexibility were accompanied by negative stressor appraisals, lower reappraisal in the context of emotion regulation, the endorsement of ineffective and inflexible coping, and heightened depressive symptoms. As shown in Table 4, after controlling for each validation measure, both subscales of the CCFQ still predicted depressive symptoms. Psychosom. We also examined whether a more complex three-factor model (that also includes a method factor for the negatively worded items) provides a better fit to the data relative to the hypothesized two-factor model (that also includes the method factor for the negatively worded items). Science 324, 646–648. Cogn. Although not exhaustive, these examples demonstrate that the terms ‘cognitive control’ and ‘cognitive flexibility’ have clearly been applied to many different behaviors. Each participant completed Enrich marital satisfaction scale, cognitive flexibility inventory, morningness-eveningness questionnaire and short form of cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire. Stress 6, 223–234. The CCFQ in Relation to Stressor Appraisals and Coping Style, Study 3. (2003). questionnaire, please contact the Washington Group secretariat. In the formula below, Cort represents the absolute cortisol value in μg/dl and T refers to the length of time between cortisol sample collections. Scores on the CCFQ were strongly associated with greater depressive symptoms, even after controlling for other measures that had been taken to reflect cognitive control and (in)flexibility (e.g., the Ruminative Response Scale; Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire). Moreover, although the alternatives subscale more closely resembles the construct of cognitive flexibility, it was not predictive of cognitive restructuring outcome measures (Johnco et al., 2014). In addition to facilitating goal-directed behaviors, cognitive control and flexibility have been implicated in emotion regulation, and disturbances of these abilities are present in mood and anxiety disorders. Control and flexibility were operationalized through statements reflecting shifting, inhibition, updating, including “shifting my attention,” “ignoring,” “setting aside,” “generating multiple …”, “thinking of several ways …”, “reframing,” and “re-evaluating.”. doi: 10.1126/science.1168450, Harvey, P. O., Fossati, P., Pochon, J. A new measure of CF, the Cognitive Flexibility Inventory, has recently been validated. To this end, a brief (18-item) self-report measure – the Cognitive Control and Flexibility Questionnaire (CCFQ) – was developed. Conscious. The developers of this inventory conceptualized cognitive flexibility as being able to challenge and replace maladaptive thoughts with more balanced and adaptive thinking. Although mental defeat and cognitive flexibility did not reach the level of the healthy control group, they demonstrated improvement. Koster, E. H., De Lissnyder, E., Derakshan, N., and De Raedt, R. (2011). J. Cogn. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0807041106, Logue, S. F., and Gould, T. J. TABLE 1. As displayed in Table 2, the cognitive control over emotion component of the CCFQ was more strongly linked to the control subscale of the Cognitive Flexibility Inventory. By contrast, the CCFQ assesses the ‘processes’ of appraising, reappraising, and coping (i.e., generating multiple alternative appraisals and coping methods), independent of content (i.e., the use of a particular coping strategy). The item pool included 33 items involving perceived engagement with fast and slow thinking, and 22 items involving perceived ability and willingness to use the 2 reasoning styles. E. J., and Spreng, R. S. ( 2010 ) the number.! Into processes related to cognitive appraisal and habitual behaviors R. 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