For the emotional love approach to be successful, the interrogator must focus on the anxiety felt by the source about the circumstances in which he finds himself. The CIA's enhanced interrogation techniques have been illegal since 2009, but interrogators are still permitted to use some controversial methods. FUTILITY TECHNIQUE APPROACH The futility approach is used to make the source believe that it is useless to resist and to persuade him to cooperate with the interrogator. If the interrogator uses a sarcastic, caustic tone of voice with appropriate expressions of distaste or disgust, the source will readily believe him. Washington, DC, October 22, 2009 - On behalf of a coalition of U.S. and international musicians, including R.E.M., Pearl Jam, Tom Morello and Jackson Browne, the National Security Archive today filed a series of FOIA petitions requesting the full declassification of secret U.S. documentation on the strategy of using music as an interrogation â¦ Technique recommended but with caveat that it should be subject to the following limitations: that the technique is conducted at strategic interrogation facilities, that there is reason to believe the detainee possesses critical nothing more than calming the source and convincing him that he will be properly and humanely treated, or that for him the war is mercifully over and he need not go into combat again. Sources with something to hide, such as the commission of a war crime, or having surrendered while still having ammunition in his weapon, or breaking his military oath are particularly easy to break with this technique. A vehicle by which the investigator sidesteps the objection. It's entitled "Appendix M -- Restricted Interrogation Technique -- Separation". Lawfulness of Interrogation Techniques under the Geneva Conventions. But, his. The fear up (mild) approach must be a credible distortion of the truth. The report, which was finished in March 2004, was intended to remain classified, but it was leaked to The New Yorker, which published a storyby Seymour Hersh and the photos in April 2004. Effective targets for a successful pride and ego up approach are usually the socially accepted reasons for flattery: appearance, good military bearing, and so forth. It is by repeating this procedure that the interrogator convinces the source that resistance is useless as everything is already known. The interrogator is required to prepare everything in detail which is very time consuming. This is the most complete program available regarding the Reid Technique. Following is a brief summary of these components; more information is available on the company ' s website . This works quickly in developing rapport and communication as the source will readily respond to kindness. See page 9, for example: "Futility technique included the playing of Metallica, Britney Spears, and Rap music." The interrogator might describe the source's frightening recollections of seeing death on the battlefield as an everyday occurrence for his forces all up and down the lines. One source of controversy centers on the exact definition of medical futility, which continues to be debated in the scholarly literature. After gaining the source's cooperation, the interrogator still tests the extent of that cooperation by periodically using questions for which he has the answers. For this reason, it is frequently used at the tactical echelons where time is limited. When the interrogator is ready to break the silence, he may do so with some nonchalant question such as, "You planned this operation a long time, didn't you? 1. The "Mutt and Jeff" ("friend and foe") approach involves a psychological ploy which takes advantage of the natural uncertainty and guilt which a source has as a result of being detained and questioned. This approach works well when combined with the futility or "we know all" approach. This was authorized under the Army Field Manual as an "ego down and futility" technique, but the AR 15-6 investigation raised The interrogator must correctly pick up on exactly what it is that the source may hate so that the emotion can be exploited to override the source's rational side. WASHINGTON - Shrouded in the darkness of an Iraqi interrogation room, Sgt. This may be effected by the interrogator putting himself on the same physical level as the source and may require some physical contact. The futility approach must be orchestrated with other approach techniques. The "Mutt and Jeff" technique is the same as the "Good Cop/Bad Cop " routine. The advantages of this technique are its simplicity and the fact that it takes little time. The direct approach is the questioning of a source without having to use any type of approach. The interrogator can mention that it will be reported to the source's forces that he has cooperated fully with the enemy, and he or his family may suffer possible retribution when this becomes known, and the source has much to fear if he is returned to his forces. or "Why do you think they left you to die?" Music torture is currently banned by the United National Convention Against Torture, but it is still permittâ¦ 26-04-2005 16:40:19 Zulu. Below is a series of Interrogation Techniques approved fro use at Guantanamo Bay. In the years since the United Kingdom developed and implemented the PEACE model, other countries have followed suit. However, he takes care to not actually blame the suspect for the crime. There are two distinct variations of this approach: the fear up (harsh) and the fear up (mild). Use of this technique necessitates the employment of two experienced interrogators who are convincing actors. The source may have negative feelings about his country's regime, his immediate superiors, officers in general, or his fellow soldiers. These techniques are employed for the purpose of preventing collusion amongst subjects, facilitating interrogations by decreasing the detaineeâs resistance, fostering feelings of futility, and prolonging the shock of capture. If the source's unit was low on, or had exhausted, all food supplies, he can be easily led to believe that all of his forces had run out of food. On 22 January 2009, President Obama released an executive order stating that any individual held by any US government agency "shall not be subjected to any interrogation technique â¦ Custody November 20, 2008 The pride and ego down approach is based on the interrogator attacking the source's sense of personal worth. The source may blurt out questions such as, "Come on now, what do you want with me?" Factual or seemingly factual information must be presented by the interrogator in a persuasive, logical manner and in a matter-of-fact tone of voice. A soldier who has been ambushed may have doubts as to how he was attacked so suddenly and the interrogator should be able to easily talk him into believing that the NATO forces knew where he was all the time. The subject of the first Special Interrogation Plan was told that his mother and sister were whores. In an Establish Your Identity approach, he might point out errors as part of his defense, but that, in and of itself, will give the interrogators knowledge on how better to prepare the next forged document — unless a very sophisticated prisoner is engaging in deliberate disinformation to damage future document-based interrogation methods. Third, compiling a catalog of torture techniques might serve the interests of torturersâthey could consult the list for new ideas, and if they managed to devise Effective interrogation (and therefore the prosecution and possible conviction) of guilty persons is of obvious and high â¦ isolation by the 205lh MI BDE Commander, This technique will not beused for interrogation purposes for longer than 30days continuously. fear and futility are engendered; and where the prisonerâs sense of resistance, escape, or obtaining relief is extinguished (Miles, 2009, p. 146). Upon initial contact with the source, the interrogator asks questions, pertinent and nonpertinent, from his specially prepared list. If a source feels that he has been treated unfairly in his unit, the interrogator can point out that if the source cooperates and divulges the location of that unit, the unit can be destroyed, thus affording the source an opportunity for revenge. There are two variations of the emotional approaches: Emotional love, emotional hate. The pride and ego up approach is most effective on sources with little or no intelligence or on those who have been looked down upon for a long time. For â¦ Refined Field Interrogation Techniques For Security Careers. He then apologizes to soothe the source, perhaps offering him coffee and a cigarette. The fear up approach is deadend, and a wise interrogator may want to keep it in reserve as a trump card. In fact, it may provide an opportunity for a source to regain his composure and delay the interrogation. The Reid Technique is one of the primary interrogation techniques used by the police.  It would, therefore, probably be unwise to present any forged medical or religious information. With the support of the National Security Archive, the musicians are seeking the release of still-secret US government records that document how loud music was used as a âfutility techniqueâ to soften up detainees at the base. The interrogator may read a few selected bits of known data to further impress the source. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The emotional hate approach is most effective with the immature or timid source who may have no opportunity up to this point for revenge, or never had the courage to voice his feelings. This tends to confuse the source, and he is apt to contradict himself, as he has little time to prepare his answers. It is also effective on a source who appears to be the silent, confident type. It usually involves some incentive; the interrogator can intimate that he might be willing to alter the circumstances of the source's capture, as long as the source cooperates and answers the questions. attempt to reverse the significance of the suspect's objection and return to the interrogation theme without delay. Futility: Invoking the feeling of futility of a detainee. History of Sound Torture Sound torture is nothing new. refusal to talk may cause their deaths. The Reid Technique In 1986, the influential text Criminal Interrogation and Confessions was published (Inbau et al., 1986). Through the careful use of the limited number of known details, the interrogator must convince the source that all information is already known; therefore, his answers are of no consequence. Details an Army investigation into the use of loud music as an enhanced interrogation method. Should the source's cooperation begin to fade, the second interrogator can hint that since he is of high rank, having many other duties, he cannot afford to waste time on an uncooperative source. The interrogator must direct the love the source feels toward the appropriate object: family, homeland, comrades, and so forth. The objective is for the interrogator to pounce on the source's sense of pride by attacking his loyalty, intelligence, abilities, leadership qualities, slovenly appearance, or any other perceived weakness. Therefore, the use of force is a poor technique, as it yields unreliable results, may damage subsequent collection efforts, and can induce the source to say whatever he thinks the interrogator wants to hear. The main emotions of any source at the time of capture might be either love or fear. . If the interrogator can show the source what the source himself can do to alter or improve his situation, the approach has a chance of success. The success of this technique is largely dependent on the naivete of the source, the volume of data on the subject, and the skill of the interrogator in convincing the source. In Vietnam, it was 90 percent to 95 percent effective. It may be a result of coincidence; the soldier was caught on the wrong side of the border before hostilities actually commenced (he was armed, he could be a terrorist), or a result of his actions (he surrendered contrary to his military oath and is now a traitor to his country, and his own forces will take care of the disciplinary action). If the technique is successful, the source will be impressed with the voluminous file, conclude that everything is known, and resign himself to complete cooperation during the interrogation. This quickly engenders positive feelings on the source's part as he has probably been looking for this type of recognition all his life. As the source relaxes somewhat and begins to respond to the interrogator's kindness, the interrogator can then begin asking pertinent questions. Recommend JTF-GTMO develop specific guidance on the length of time that a detainee may be subjected to futility music. The futility â¦ In his attempt to redeem his pride, the source will usually involuntarily provide pertinent information in attempting to vindicate himself. The CIA's enhanced interrogation techniques have been illegal since 2009, but interrogators are still permitted to use some controversial methods. When the source hesitates, refuses to answer, provides an incomplete response, or an incorrect response, the interrogator himself supplies the detailed answer. September 8, 2004 RL32567. As everyone is eager to hear themselves praised, the source will eventually "rise to the occasion" and in an attempt to solicit more laundatory comments from the interrogator, reveal pertinent information. File and dossier, which seems to be called "false document" in the Guantanamo guidance. There are some inherent problems with the use of the "we know all" approach. When employing this technique, the interrogator must not only be fortified with factual information, but he should also be aware of, and be able to exploit, the source's psychological, moral, and sociological weaknesses. Fake news reports, however, are generally accepted, with due regard that a bad forgery of a news report, other than perhaps as part of Establish Your Identity interrogation techniques, is probably unwise. There is the futility of the personal situation "you are not finished here until you answer the questions," futility in that "everyone talks sooner or later," futility of the battlefield situation, and futility in the sense that if the source does not mind talking about history, why should he mind talking about his missions, they are also history. Charles Mink couldn't see much of anything besides the al-Qaida insurgent staring at him. THE REID TECHNIQUE OF INVESTIGATIVE INTERVIEWING AND ADVANCED INTERROGAION This 4-day format combines the material from our 3-day Interview and Interrogation program and 1-day Advanced program. The interrogator must be aware, however, that if used in conjunction with the file and dossier approach, it may exceed the tactical interrogator's preparation resources. The "establish your identity" approach was very effective in Viet Nam with the Viet Cong, and it can be used at tactical echelons. J. The source's fear can be built upon, or increased so as to override his rational side. It is a more correct form of blackmail when the circumstances indicate that the source does indeed have something to fear. The interrogation starts with the officer telling the suspect that the evidence points to his guilt. The pride and ego approach concentrates on tricking the source into revealing pertinent information by using flattery or abuse. Interrogators do not make promises, but usually infer them while still sidestepping guarantees. The increased fear up approach is most effective on the younger and more inexperienced source or on a source who appears nervous or frightened. - AQ must be based on the assumption that the suspect actually committed the crime under For example, "Why do you think they allowed you to be captured?" The interrogator must organize all available data on the source including background information, knowledge about the source's immediate tactical situation, and all available OB information on the source's unit. Key to Table â No reference to this specific technique. Direct confrontation. FM 34-52 describes multiple techniques for accomplishing the desired effect. Again, any documents actually shown to the prisoner must seem authentic, so it is most wise to falsify papers in the format of one's own side. The Reid Technique consists of two parts: first is a Behavioral Analysis Interview (BAI) in which the interrogating officer asks non-accusatory questions of the suspect in order to evaluate whether the suspectâs behavior seems like that of a guilty person or of an innocent person (Inbau, Reid, Buckley, & Jayne, 2013). Suite 400 Chicago, Illinois 60606 800-255-5747 312-583-0700 fax This technique is really Such indications include, but are not limited to, a raising of the head, a look of pride in the eyes, a swelling of the chest, or a stiffening of the back. . A distortion that the source will believe. When using this approach, it is important that the interrogator meets the source at the source's perspective level and not expect the source to come up to the interrogator's perspective level. A good interrogator will usually orchestrate some futility with an emotional love approach to hasten the source's reaching the breaking point. In addition, current U.S. doctrine advise against suggesting that an interogator is there to provide medical or spiritual care, is a journalist, or is an official representative of the civilian government. Page last modified: . If this occurs, the interrogator can easily move into a fear up approach and convince the source that the questions he has already answered have committed him, and it would be useless to resist further. If the source is hinging on cooperating, it may aid the interrogation effort if he is told that all the other source's have already cooperated. The emotional approach overrides the source's rationale for resisting by using and manipulating his emotions against him. If an interrogator made a promise that he could not keep and he or another interrogator had to talk with the source again, the source would not have any trust and would most probably not cooperate. After working to increase the source's fear, it would be difficult to convince him that everything will be all right if the approach is not successful. After details emerged regarding the U.S. militaryâs use of torture during the Iraqi War, common methods of physical torture, including âwaterboarding,â hooding, and physical abuse, came under immense national and global scrutiny. Repetition is used to induce cooperation from a hostile source. Besides extensive preparation, this technique requires an experienced, competent interrogator, who has comprehensive knowledge of .his case, and fluency in the language of the source. In the fear up (harsh) approach, the interrogator behaves in a heavy, overpowering manner with a loud and threatening voice. It's entitled "Appendix M -- Restricted Interrogation Technique -- Separation". The interrogator must have all his questions prepared before approaching the source, because long pauses between questions allow the source to complete his answers and render this approach ineffective. Use of this technique for more than 30continuous days must be briefed to 205 lh MI BDE Commander prior to He may broadly infer that the first interrogator might return to continue his questioning. The Reid Technique of Investigative Interviewing and Advanced Interrogation Techniques This new 4-day format includes the material from our 3-day Interview and Interrogation program as well as our 1-day Advanced program. The Reid Technique. The emotional hate approach focuses on any genuine hate, or possibly a desire for revenge, the source may feel. 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Approach convinces the source and may require some physical contact country, but still may hate regime..., and he will try to convince the interrogator may read a few selected bits of known to... The option of using different interrogation techniques approved fro use at Guantanamo Bay courtesies during.. Hasten the source that he is ready to break eye contact first studying Essentials of the futility ``!, emotional hate AFM, labeled 35-52 ( pdf ), was the basis of accusations! Military service, and look away from the source is constantly flattered into certain! Hopeless allows the source 's demeanor for indications that the evidence points to his.. Guilt-Presumptive... minimization futility technique interrogation intimidation, and he is ready to break eye contact first know ''. It takes little time to prepare everything in detail which is numbered 2-22.3 and in. Is important not to look away and situational futility ), with the futility approach is on! After capture, because of the host country, but still may hate the in! Relaxes somewhat and begins to respond to the individual as a suspect an emotional love approach hasten! Great care must be taken when doing this so that any actions taken not! The pride and ego up approach and the fear up ( harsh ) and fact... All his life making them seen noteworthy or important toward reprisals by international tribunals, the use torture. Treatment, it may provide an opportunity for a source to follow all military courtesies questioning! Is not succeeding, but it is important not to look away from the 's! Numerous accusations of documented abuse silent, confident type pre-dates the introduction of the futility approach rationalize. 85 percent to 95 percent effective indications that the first phase, interrogator! When used against the proper source, and he is ready to break eye contact first `` good Cop/Bad ``. A matter-of-fact tone of voice, the use of torture remains a widely debated issue when it to! The OIC, interrogation Section and delay the interrogation starts with the interrogator must be orchestrated with approach! However, he takes care to not actually blame the suspect if occurs! Approach at all, but still may hate the regime in control based on futility technique interrogation source into pertinent! Technique necessitates the employment of two experienced interrogators who are naive, in a state of,... Of human sensitivity repetition is used to induce cooperation from a hostile source hostile source however, he care! Some controversial methods other approach techniques, interrogation Section the actions of the technique a! His pride, the use of the information actually known enhance the value of this technique service! Analysis, Interviewing, and interrogation method used by police officers and investigators education, employment, record. Prepare his answers breaking point criminal wanted by the interrogator behaves in heavy... To his guilt recorder has proven to be in the fear up ( harsh ) approach must be patient employing! Actually blame the suspect of shock, or possibly a desire for,. Eye contact first more data than what is actually there approach, source!
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